(a)  The intention of the transferor as expressed in the instrument controls the legal effect of the dispositions made in the instrument.

(b)  The rules of construction in this part apply where the intention of the transferor is not indicated by the instrument.

(c)  Nothing in this section limits the use of extrinsic evidence, to the extent otherwise authorized by law, to determine the intention of the transferor.


The words of an instrument are to receive an interpretation that will give every expression some effect, rather than one that will render any of the expressions inoperative. Preference is to be given to an interpretation of an instrument that will prevent intestacy or failure of a transfer, rather than one that will result in an intestacy or failure of a transfer.


All parts of an instrument are to be construed in relation to each other and so as, if possible, to form a consistent whole.   If the meaning of any part of an instrument is ambiguous or doubtful, it may be explained by any reference to or recital of that part in another part of the instrument.

§ 21122. Words are given their ordinary meaning

The words of an instrument are to be given their ordinary and grammatical meaning unless the intention to use them in another sense is clear and their intended meaning can be ascertained.  Technical words are not necessary to give effect to a disposition in an instrument.  Technical words are to be considered as having been used in their technical sense unless (a) the context clearly indicates a contrary intention or (b) it satisfactorily appears that the instrument was drawn solely by the transferor and that the transferor was unacquainted with the technical sense.


Under Construction...